很久没有转载文章了。今天分享的这篇,是耶鲁大学历史系教授 Timothy Snyder 3个月前发在 Facebook 上的一篇帖子。我是非常忌讳来路不明的“名人名言”的,这篇文章的原始出处你可以点击前面的链接来查证。

前言

Americans are no wiser than the Europeans who saw democracy yield to fascism, Nazism, or communism. Our one advantage is that we might learn from their experience. Now is a good time to do so. Here are twenty lessons from the twentieth century, adapted to the circumstances of today.

(政治方面)美国人并不比欧洲人更聪明,毕竟欧洲人亲眼目睹了民主国家屈服于“法西斯主义、纳粹主义、共产主义”。
咱们美国人的一个优势是——可以从他们(欧洲人)的经验中学习。如今正是学习的好时机。
这里是二十世纪的二十课,适应今天的情况。

1. 不要提前服从

1. Do not obey in advance. Much of the power of authoritarianism is freely given. In times like these, individuals think ahead about what a more repressive government will want, and then start to do it without being asked. You’ve already done this, haven’t you? Stop. Anticipatory obedience teaches authorities what is possible and accelerates unfreedom.

不要提前服从!
权力总是太轻易地被交到独裁者手中。
很多人会预期独裁政权想要什么,然后就真的这么去做了——即使并没有人要求他们这么做。
你已经这样做过了,不是吗?停下来吧!
民众轻易地服从会纵容独裁者,使之变本加厉地剥夺自由。

如果你不明白这是什么意思,看看微博等许多国内媒体的“自我阉割”吧。

2. 捍卫(民主)制度

Defend an institution. Follow the courts or the media, or a court or a newspaper. Do not speak of “our institutions” unless you are making them yours by acting on their behalf. Institutions don’t protect themselves. They go down like dominoes unless each is defended from the beginning.

捍卫(民主)制度。
仔细审查法院或者媒体,哪怕是某一个法庭或某一份报纸。不要把“我们的体制”挂在嘴边,除非你能代表它,把它视作你自己。
制度并不能自我保护,如果民众不能从一开始就捍卫它,它就会像多米诺骨牌一样倒塌。

3. 捍卫职业操守

3. Recall professional ethics. When the leaders of state set a negative example, professional commitments to just practice become much more important. It is hard to break a rule-of-law state without lawyers, and it is hard to have show trials without judges.

捍卫职业操守。
当政客们开始干坏事,“践行职业操守”就变得非常重要。
如果没有律师愿意同流合污,政客就难以践踏法治;
如果没有法官愿意同流合污,政客就难以操纵审判。

4. 警惕某些政治术语

4. When listening to politicians, distinguish certain words. Look out for the expansive use of “terrorism” and “extremism.” Be alive to the fatal notions of “exception” and “emergency.” Be angry about the treacherous use of patriotic vocabulary.

听政客的演讲,要留意某些词汇。
如果政客老是把“恐怖主义、极端主义”之类的词汇挂在嘴边,你就要警惕了。
另外,对诸如“例外”、“紧急状况”等概念要保持清醒。
要对爱国词汇的滥用表示愤怒。

5. 对极端事件保持冷静

5. Be calm when the unthinkable arrives. When the terrorist attack comes, remember that all authoritarians at all times either await or plan such events in order to consolidate power. Think of the Reichstag fire. The sudden disaster that requires the end of the balance of power, the end of opposition parties, and so on, is the oldest trick in the Hitlerian book. Don’t fall for it.

对极端事件保持冷静。
当恐怖袭击来临,你要记住:所有的独裁者都在等待这样的机会,以便趁机强化自己的权力。
想想“国会纵火案”吧。突如其来的灾难会打破权力的制衡,会终结反对党……
对这种希特勒用过的陈旧伎俩,你可不要上当哦。

“制造恐惧是专制政府的终极武器” ——《V字仇杀队》

6. 语言和阅读

6. Be kind to our language. Avoid pronouncing the phrases everyone else does. Think up your own way of speaking, even if only to convey that thing you think everyone is saying. (Don’t use the internet before bed. Charge your gadgets away from your bedroom, and read.) What to read? Perhaps “The Power of the Powerless” by Václav Havel, 1984 by George Orwell, The Captive Mind by Czesław Milosz, The Rebel by Albert Camus, The Origins of Totalitarianism by Hannah Arendt, or Nothing is True and Everything is Possible by Peter Pomerantsev.

尊重语言。(参见本节的点评)
不要人云亦云。即使对大家都在说的同一件事情,你也要用自己的说话方式去表达。
(不要上床睡觉前还在网上冲浪,不要在卧室里充电你那些电子设备。多去读点书。)
读什么捏?比如说这些:
瓦茨拉夫·哈维尔:《无权者的权力》
乔治·奥威尔:《一九八四》
切斯瓦夫·米沃什:《被禁锢的头脑》
阿尔贝·加谬:《反抗者》
汉娜·阿伦特:《极权主义的起源》
彼得·波莫兰切夫:《一切都是假的,一切皆有可能》

7. 挺身而出

7. Stand out. Someone has to. It is easy, in words and deeds, to follow along. It can feel strange to do or say something different. But without that unease, there is no freedom. And the moment you set an example, the spell of the status quo is broken, and others will follow.

很多时候,总要有人站出来。
在言行方面,随大流总是比较容易,而特立独行则比较困难。但没有这种困难,也就没有自由。
当你站出来,你就树立了一个榜样,维持现状的魔咒会被打破,就会有人跟随你。

8. 相信事实真相

8. Believe in truth. To abandon facts is to abandon freedom. If nothing is true, then no one can criticize power, because there is no basis upon which to do so. If nothing is true, then all is spectacle. The biggest wallet pays for the most blinding lights.

相信事实真相。
放弃真相就是放弃自由。
如果没有真相,对权力的批评就失去了依据。
因为不再有去判断应该做什么的基准。如果没有真相,那么所有的都只能是假象。
最大的钱包为最瞎的灯付账。(资本总是邪恶的,它会不惜代价的去买通最易盲从的群体)

“大多数人宁可相信美丽的谎言,而不愿直面丑陋的真相。”

9. 调查

9. Investigate. Figure things out for yourself. Spend more time with long articles. Subsidize investigative journalism by subscribing to print media. Realize that some of what is on your screen is there to harm you. Learn about sites that investigate foreign propaganda pushes.

学会自己弄清楚事情的缘由。
要习惯于多看长篇文章。
通过订阅纸质媒体来资助新闻调查。
另外还要明白:你在屏幕上看到的东西,有些是对你有害的。
多了解那些“调查外国政治忽悠”的网站(有些专制国家会资助“国家喉舌”到全球各国进行政治忽悠)

在如今这个信息时代,对同一个热门话题,你往往可以找到立场截然不同的文章。哪一个才是靠谱的?这时候就需要用到【批判性思维】这个重要的思维能力了。

10. 社交活动

10. Practice corporeal politics. Power wants your body softening in your chair and your emotions dissipating on the screen. Get outside. Put your body in unfamiliar places with unfamiliar people. Make new friends and march with them.

践行身体政治。
如果你整天宅在家里,终日面对屏幕,你就废了——而这正是权力阶层所希望看到的。
应该走出去,到陌生的地方,接触陌生人。
想办法结交新的朋友,与他们携手共进。

11. 沟通

11. Make eye contact and small talk. This is not just polite. It is a way to stay in touch with your surroundings, break down unnecessary social barriers, and come to understand whom you should and should not trust. If we enter a culture of denunciation, you will want to know the psychological landscape of your daily life.

眼神接触和短暂聊天。这不只是出于礼貌,这是一种方式——让你与周围环境保持联系,打破不必要的社会障碍,并了解谁是值得你信任的。
一旦社会崩坏,人们彼此攻讦,你得知道身边这些人的心理状态。

12. 付诸行动

12. Take responsibility for the face of the world. Notice the swastikas and the other signs of hate. Do not look away and do not get used to them. Remove them yourself and set an example for others to do so.

为世容世貌负责.
当你看到纳粹标志或其它煽动仇恨的东西,不要看过就算了,更不要对这些东西习以为常。
你应该亲自动手把它清除掉,为其他人作出表率。

13. 行使投票权

13. Hinder the one-party state. The parties that took over states were once something else. They exploited a historical moment to make political life impossible for their rivals. Vote in local and state elections while you can.

想办法阻止一党专政。
接管了国家的政党并不是生来如此。它们只不过是利用了某个历史性时刻来获得此种(一党制)地位。
尽你所能,参与国家选举和地区选举的投票。

无论大或者小,每一次投票都代表了你自己作为一个独立个体的选择。结合前阵子学院的事情,你懂得我想说什么。

14. 资助/捐款

14. Give regularly to good causes, if you can. Pick a charity and set up autopay. Then you will know that you have made a free choice that is supporting civil society helping others doing something good.

尽你所能,定期行善。
选择一个慈善机构并设置自动捐款。
然后你会感受到你做了一个自由的选择,并且会帮助社会倡导人们行善。

15. 保护个人隐私

15. Establish a private life. Nastier rulers will use what they know about you to push you around. Scrub your computer of malware. Remember that email is skywriting. Consider using alternative forms of the internet, or simply using it less. Have personal exchanges in person. For the same reason, resolve any legal trouble. Authoritarianism works as a blackmail state, looking for the hook on which to hang you. Try not to have too many hooks.

保护你的个人隐私。
专制政府对你了解得越多,就越能够欺压你。
记得时常检查并清除自己电脑中的恶意软件。
谨记电邮是空中文字(大家都可以看得到的)。
考虑使用其他方式来代替互联网;(如果做不到的话)或者更少地使用它。
个人之间的交流尽量面对面进行。
同理,规避所有法律上的麻烦。专制政府善于敲诈,他们会找到各种可利用的借口来搞你。尽量别让他们有太多借口。

16. 学习别国的经验

16. Learn from others in other countries. Keep up your friendships abroad, or make new friends abroad. The present difficulties here are an element of a general trend. And no country is going to find a solution by itself. Make sure you and your family have passports.

学习别国的经验。
结识海外的朋友,并与他们保持联系。
如今的挑战不是哪个国家自个儿的事,也没有哪个国家能单独给出答案。
确保你和你的家人有护照。

17. 警惕准军事组织

17. Watch out for the paramilitaries. When the men with guns who have always claimed to be against the system start wearing uniforms and marching around with torches and pictures of a Leader, the end is nigh. When the pro-Leader paramilitary and the official police and military intermingle, the game is over.

对准军事组织要保持警惕。
那些带枪的人,原先一直声称反体制;当他们开始穿上制服,拿着火把,抬着领袖的画像搞游行,那民主制度就不妙了。
当他们开始混入官方的警察和军队中,那民主制度就完蛋了。

18. 抗拒非正义的命令

18. Be reflective if you must be armed. If you carry a weapon in public service, God bless you and keep you. But know that evils of the past involved policemen and soldiers finding themselves, one day, doing irregular things. Be ready to say no. (If you do not know what this means, contact the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and ask about training in professional ethics.)

如果你是武装人员(警察、士兵),你需要好好反思一下。
如果你在公众服务时佩戴武器,希望神能祝福并保护你。
请记住以往的罪恶往往都是以在某一天,警察或者军人发现他们自己正在做一些不寻常的事情而开始的。
当这种情况发生到你头上的时候,请做好准备说“不”。
(如果你不知道这是啥意思,请联系“美国大屠杀纪念馆”,咨询道德培训)

19. 保有勇气

19. Be as courageous as you can. If none of us is prepared to die for freedom, then all of us will die in unfreedom.

要尽可能勇敢。
如果没有人准备好为自由献身,那所有人都将在奴役中死去。

20. 留下榜样

20. Be a patriot. The incoming president is not. Set a good example of what America means for the generations to come. They will need it.

做个爱国者——目前这个新总统不是爱国者。
为子孙后代留下真正爱国者的榜样。他们需要这种榜样。

恭喜你。能看到这里,证明你已经比大多数人好一点点了。不过,我还是更希望你能做到上面说的这些。

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